Parenteral Injection Massage: Bioavailability and Adverse effects, A Systematic Review
Parenteral injections are important preventive and intervention modalities for children and adults.Â Pain issues during injection procedures need to be addressed to increase adherence to medications and vaccination.Â Although pain is a concern, so are the measures to allow increased bioavailability of injectates for the maximal use of the body and the prevention of adverse effects.Â The objective of this review is to find out whether massaging an injection site increases bioavailability of injectates, while at the same time decreasing the pain experience and adverse effects.Â The subjects included 327 infants whose ages are 2, 4 and 6 months and 165 adults (15 to 67) who received parenteral injections.Â There is insufficient evidence to recommend massage prior to or after an injection to decrease pain and increase the bioavailability of injectates.Â More experimental studies are recommended.
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